Under this system, peasants lived on a manor presided over by a lord or a bishop of the church.Peasants paid rent or labor services to the lord in exchange for their right to cultivate the land.In the wake of this disruption to the established order, later centuries saw the invention of the printing press, the development of widespread literacy and the enormous social and intellectual changes of the Enlightenment.The evolution of ideas in an environment of relatively widespread literacy laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution, which enabled mechanically and chemically augmented agricultural production while simultaneously increasing the demand for factory workers in cities, who became what Karl Marx called the proletariat.Fallowed land, pastures, forests, and wasteland were held in common.The open field system required cooperation among the peasants of the manor.They belonged to a corporate body and helped to manage the community resources and to monitor community life.
He based his findings on school records, migration patterns, military-service documents and economic trends.Even before emancipation in 1861, serfdom was on the wane in Russia.The proportion of serfs within the empire had gradually decreased "from 45-50 percent at the end of the eighteenth century, to 37.7 percent in 1858." In Germany, peasants continued to center their lives in the village well into the 19th century.The implication of the term is that the "peasant" is uneducated, ignorant, and unfamiliar with the more sophisticated mannerisms of the urban population.
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