Archaeology radiocarbon dating


The excavation was extended to the north, exposing a 4-room (with possibly a fifth room extending into the bulk) building (≈7.25 × 8.50 m). 2, this building was constructed on top of 3 m of debris layers also representing industrial-scale copper production.The basal virgin sediment consists of sterile wadi sands.Archaeologists such as Glueck metaphorically carried the trowel in 1 hand and the Bible in the other, searching the archaeological landscape of the southern Levant for confirmation of the biblical narrative from the Patriarchs to the United Monarchy under David and Solomon to other personages, places, and events mentioned in the sacred text.Beginning in the 1980s, this paradigm came under severe attack, primarily by so-called biblical minimalist scholars who argued that as the HB was edited in its final form during the 5th century (c.) BC (3), any reference in the text to events earlier than 500 BC were false (4).(1), asserting that he had discovered King Solomon's mines in the Faynan district (the northern part of biblical Edom), ≈50 km south of the Dead Sea in what is now southern Jordan.



Faynan is part of an IA polity known from the HB as Edom, located in the Saharo-Arabian desert zone in southern Transjordan. BCE, Edom extended westward across the Wadi Arabah, from Transjordan into the Negev Desert.On the basis of the dating of the Edom highland excavations, Glueck's excavations at Tell el-Kheleifeh (which he identified with Solomon's Red Sea port of Ezion Geber in south Edom) and most IA sites in this region were reinterpreted as belonging to the 7th c. BCE phenomenon were discarded and assumed to date to the 7th–8th c. The C dates associated with smelting debris layers from Faynan reported here demonstrate intensive 10th–9th c.BCE industrial metallurgical activities conducted by complex societies.The analytical approach advocated here argues for an historical biblical archaeology rooted in the application of science-based methods that enables subcentury dating and the control of the spatial context of data through digital recording tools.

Advances in IA Levantine archaeology can serve as a model for other historical archaeologies around the world that engage ancient historical texts such as the Mahabharata and other ancient writings in India (9), the Sagas of Iceland (10), and Mayan glyphs (11).

The 2002 results were criticized by researchers who misunderstood the application of Bayesian statistics to help achieve subcentury dating accuracy (20) and had preconceived dating frameworks that would not allow for the construction of monumental fortresses and complex polities in Edom during the 10th and 9th c.